Profiling: Hindi Vs Non Hindi Markets

One way to understand the market is through the language spoken by consumers. And in India, it can be broadly divided into Hindi and non-Hindi speaking population. The data can be further sliced to look at differences between Hindi speaking states.

For example, Chandigarh is vastly different from Patna in all aspects – demographics to economic affluence. This article is an attempt to understand the major differences between the Hindi and non-Hindi speaking markets through three parameters – urbanisation, education and female population. In the next article, we’ll look at what people own in these two markets.

We have considered 14 states as Hindi speaking states, mainly based on percentage of people who can talk in Hindi as per 2001 Census data (Yes, that’s the last time Census released data on languages spoken). Marathi is the mother tongue for Maharashtra, but they would come under Hindi speaking state because a large proportion of the population can talk in Hindi. A detailed table can be seen at the end of this article.

What can these indicators speak of:
Urbanisation – more non-farm employment opportunities, higher share of service sector jobs, more opportunities to move ahead economically
Literacy – ability to read and understand issues and take an informed decision.
Share of female population – how are women treated in the society.

In terms of population, Hindi speaking states account for nearly two-thirds of India’s population. But in other parameters – urbanisation, literacy and share of female population – they lag behind.

State-wise data on the parameters used in the analysis, see the map below.

In the second-part of the series in understanding Hindi vs Non-Hindi speaking markets, we will look at affluence as measured by ownership of assets like two or four wheelers etc. For more data, please check HowIndiaLives.com, India’s most granular database covering all the 715,000 geographical locations.

(John is co-founder of How India Lives)

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Which states and departments transfer their IAS officers the most and which ones the least?

This piece originally appeared on Livemint.com


Imagine changing your job every year. That’s what the average IAS officer in Haryana, Jharkhand and Himachal Pradesh does. Haryana is the worst. An IAS officer belonging to that cadre and having 10 years of service, on average, spent just 343 days in a posting. Their peers at the Centre are better, but still far short of the average standards of job tenures, especially in the context of good governance and continuity: they spend, on average, 22 months in a posting.

The data interactive below has compiled the transfer records of 39,000-odd postings of about 2,600 serving officers, as posted by the Department of Personnel & Training. You can use it to see where the Centre and individual states, whose IAS officers are organised under 26 cadres, stand when it comes to transfers. Besides cadre, you can also search by departments, gender and individual officers.

The transfer malaise is all-pervasive. For example, it illustrates, how 10% of postings in 20 key departments in the state cadres (excluding Centre), last anywhere between 33 days and 71 days. Or, how 22% of IAS officers average less than a year in a posting. Or, how Ashok Khemka, who has been transferred by governments in Haryana 46 times in his 25-year career, is only one of the 11 officers to record 40-plus postings.


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News in numbers, Apr 7, 2016: Oldest Pota case comes to an end, Tata Motors’ Tiago launch…


What is it? Upper limit of a state’s fiscal deficit for years between 2016-17 and 2019-20, up from 3% earlier.

Why is it important? This would allow state governments borrow more. This comes at a time when the aggregate fiscal deficit of 17 states is expected to be higher at 2.9% of GDP in 2016-17 from 2.7% of GDP in 2016-17 due to pay commission wage hikes and interest bills on UDAY (for turnaround of power distribution companies) bonds, according to HSBC.

Tell me more: The increase in upper limit comes with conditions: states should have a favourable debt-GSDP ratio and interest payments-revenue receipts ratio in the previous two years, and states should not have a revenue deficit (net amount received is lesser than the projected net amount to be received) in the year in which borrowing limits are fixed and also, the previous year.


What is it? The number of convicts who received life imprisonment in the triple Mumbai blasts of 2002-2003.

Why is it important? The judgment brings an end to the oldest Pota (Prevention of Terrorism Act) case. The blasts, which killed 12 people and injured 141, a special Pota court spared death sentence to Muzammil Ansari who was found guilty under 18 charges including planting the bombs at various locations.

Tell me more: Of the 10 convicts, four received 10 years of rigorous imprisonment while three others who have already served eight years in prison, got two years of simple imprisonment. Between December 2002 and March 2003, bombs had exploded at the Mumbai Central Railway Station, in the market area of Vile Parle station and in the first class ladies compartment of a Karjat-bound train.

40 lakh litres

What is it? The quantity of non-potable water used to maintain pitches and outfield for eight IPL matches to be held in Maharashtra.

Why is it important? This comes at a time when Maharashtra is facing a water crisis, and could result in all the 20 matches (including the inaugural and the final) to be held in the state to be shifted elsewhere, thanks to a court case. The IPL begins on April 9. Some of the rural areas such as Marathwada, Vidharbha and Latur, have been the worst hit, and the cities Mumbai and Thane have not been spared too.

Tell me more: This case was a result of a public interest litigation filed by an NGO, Loksatta Movement and others, who questioned the use of large quantities of water for cricket matches when parts of the state were facing severe droughts.  

Rs 3.2 lakh – 5.54 lakh

What is it? The price range of Tata Motors’ Tiago model.

Why is it important? This is the least expensive compact hatchback car in its class. The launch is crucial for Tata Motors, which posted a drop of 6% in passenger vehicle sales in 2015-16 year-on-year, and also got pushed by Honda and Toyota to the sixth position in 2014-15 from the fourth the previous year.

Tell me more: The Tiago has five variants each of both petrol and diesel and will be the third all-new product launch by Tata Motors in 20 months.


What is it? The number of companies that declared dividends in March 2016, compared to 27 last March.

Why is it important? Companies rushed to pay dividends last month to avoid paying a 10% tax effective April 1 imposed in the recent budget. In all, dividends worth Rs 44,975 crore were declared, saving shareholders taxes worth Rs 1,452 crore. Last year in March, 27 companies issued dividends totalling Rs 5,854 crore.

Tell me more: The 10% tax is in addition to dividend distribution tax, which is effectively 20.36% including surcharge and cess and dividend income was exempt from tax in the hands of shareholders.

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Five takeaways from Census religion data across districts

This piece originally appeared on Livemint.com


Muslims in Assam and West Bengal, Hindus in Punjab—that’s the concentration of leading districts of growth of the two major religious communities in India. This, and four other takeaways, from a parsing of census religion data for the 529 districts—out of 640 in all—whose boundaries did not change between 2001 and 2011.

High share growth among Muslim and Hindu are studies in contrast

Of the top 20 districts where the Muslim share increased the most, nine were in Assam or West Bengal, two of the five states that share a boundary with Bangladesh. Punjab, with eight districts, led in gains in Hindu share. Also, in general, the top 10 districts in this Muslim set are less prosperous and face greater employment challenges than the Hindu set.




Sex ratios are improving more in urban areas than in rural

Sex ratios have improved more in urban areas than rural areas across religions, indicating that women and families are participating more in the urbanization and migration journeys. Sex ratios of Muslims were better than those of Hindus in both urban and rural areas in 2001, and have remained so in 2011. And, Sikhs still have the worst sex ratio and Christians the best.




Every religion has seen sharp losses in certain districts

All religions have seen their numbers decline in certain districts from our set of 529 districts. At one end are Hindus and Muslims, for whom the share of such districts is in single digits. At the other end are Sikhs, Buddhists and Jains, for whom the share of such districts is around 40%.




Hindu minority in select states is gaining share

The usual narrative is that of a minority—usually Muslim—gaining share in a Hindu majority state. The opposite is also seen: Hindu gaining share in states where it is the minority religion, notably in Punjab and in Jammu and Kashmir.




Districts hit by Hindu-Muslim violence have not seen Muslim migration

The period between these two census exercises saw Hindu-Muslim communal violence in several Hindu-majority districts, notably in Gujarat in 2002 and in Uttar Pradesh. However, barring Gorakhpur, the numbers are largely in line with overall patterns.




Data source: Census 2001 and Census 2011


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