News in Numbers, Jan 3, 2017: Wéi!


What is it? The market share of Chinese phone companies in the smartphone segment in November, according to analysts.

Why is it important? For the first time ever, Chinese brands hold a dominant position in the smartphone segment in India at the cost of the market share held by Indian companies and the bigger players such as Samsung and Apple. The share of Indian brands fell from a peak of over 40% recorded earlier in 2016 to 18% in October and November whereas that of Samsung and Apple fell by 3% month-on-month to land at 32% in November. Interestingly, Indian and Chinese players had an equal share (34% each) as of September.

Tell me more: As many as 32.3 million smartphones were shipped in the July-September quarter of 2016, continuing to clock double-digit growth, according to research firm International Data Corporation. Chinese players including Lenovo, Xiaomi, Vivo and Oppo are looking to gain a stronghold in India following the saturation in Chinese mobile phone market.



What is it? The service charges levied by hotels and restaurants, in lieu of tips.

Why is it important? The Department of Consumer Affairs issued a notification on Monday clarifying that it is not mandatory for the customers to pay the service charge that is added to the bills. This comes after customers complaining that they are forced to pay the service charge irrespective of the kind of service they are offered. This is likely to force hotels/restaurants to provide better services and/or increase the prices of the items on their menu cards.

Tell me more: After seeking a clarification from the Hotel Association of India, the Department of Consumer Affairs has asked the state governments to make hotels and restaurants aware of this rule and also direct hotels to put up notices to inform their customers that the payment of service charge is discretionary.



What is it? The growth rate of India’s eight infrastructure sectors – coal, crude oil, natural gas, refinery products, fertilisers, steel, cement and electricity – in November on a year-on-year basis.

Why is it important? Though it is higher than 0.6% recorded in November 2015, it is slower than the rates registered in September and October 2016 – 5% and 6.6% respectively. The slowdown is likely due to the currency reset move by the government in November, which also led to Nikkei’s Manufacturing Purchasing Managers’ Index, a composite indicator of the country’s manufacturing activity based on a survey, to decline to 49.6 in December (from 52.3 in November) – the biggest month-on-month decline since November 2008 and the first contraction (below the 50-mark) in this year.

Tell me more: Among the eight core sectors, coal production, petroleum refinery production, fertiliser production, steel production, cement production and electricity generation registered increases in November compared to a year ago while crude oil and natural gas recorded decreases during the same period.


> 12,000 km

What is it? The distance China’s first freight train to London, which was flagged off on Sunday.

Why is it important? The train, which will reach London in about 18 days, is part of China’s efforts to strengthen its ties with Britain, better serve its Belt and Road Initiative and boost its weak exports and economic growth, which was the slowest in 25 years in 2015. At the end of June 2016, there were 1,881 China-Europe cargo trains in service, which imported and exported goods worth $17 billion. An estimated 5,000 cargo trains will run between China and Europe per year by 2020, according to the former’s top economic planning body.

Tell me more: China’s freight train to London, which primarily carried household items, garments, cloth, bags and suitcases, would pass through Kazakhstan, Russia, Belarus, Poland, Germany, Belgium and France.


< 3 cents

What is it? Solar energy prices per kilowatt-hour in countries such as Chile and the United Arab Emirates in 2016.

Why is it important? This is about half the average global cost of coal power and could become the cheapest source of power by 2025, according to Bloomberg New Energy Finance. Prices of solar, which is greener than burning fossil fuels, have fallen by 62% since 2009 mainly due to increase in volumes and lower margins. In India too, solar power tariff fell to a record low of Rs 3 per unit in November 2016, which was as high as Rs 12 per unit six years ago.

Tell me more: India is looking to achieve its target of 100 gigawatts of solar capacity generation by the end of 2017 itself, much ahead of its original deadline of 2022. The country’s solar power generation crossed 19,000 megawatts in 2015-16.

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News in numbers, Apr 21, 2016: India’s poverty rate, unethical means to meet financial targets…


What is it? The amount of tax India’s environment minister wants developed countries to levy per tonne of coal production.

Why is it important? It could help mobilise $100 billion a year until 2020 to help developing countries such as India to tackle climate change. This is as per the Paris agreement signed last December.

Tell me more: India increased taxes on coal mining in February to $6 per tonne from $1 a tonne to limit its consumption. The country, which claims to levy the highest tax on coal mining, wants to double its coal output in another four years.

<=Rs 38

What is it? The amount on which nearly half of the Indian population (47%) lived on, in 2011-12, as per data by Global Consumption and Income Project.

Why is it important? Indicates India may have more poor people than official estimates suggest. The official poverty rate is 22%, that is, the percentage of population with less than Rs 27 per day in rural areas and Rs 33 per day in urban areas in 2011-12.

Tell me more: With $1.9 (or roughly, Rs 29) per day as the poverty line, which is closer to the official numbers, the poverty rate works out to be 28%, higher than the official estimates. No matter which poverty line one adopts, poverty rates have declined over years. The moot question: by how much.

5,134 tonnes

What is it? The quantity of gold held in Bank of England gold vaults under the streets of London stretching across 300,000 square feet.

Why is it important? These hold over 80% of the 6,256 tonnes of gold stored in London, which in turn, is a fifth of the total gold held by governments in the city. Investors turn to gold, one of the most traded assets, which is considered a safe haven during times of financial uncertainty.

Tell me more: These vaults still need a bunch of keys to be accessed with minimal dependence on technology for security measures, which some believe is easier to be compromised.

> 2,000

What is it? The reported number of courses that India’s own MOOCs (massive open online courses) platform will have.

Why is it important? It’s widely accepted that MOOCs will play a major role higher education globally, and India’s online education initiative – Study Webs of Active-Learning for Young Aspiring Minds (SWAYAM) – could potentially bring advanced courses relevant to India in local languages to millions of students of all ages.

Tell me more: Others such as Coursera and edX offer such free online courses from various universities across the world, though some of them charge for receiving verified certificates upon completion of the courses. Only 8.15% of Indians are graduates. It was estimated that India would have 402 million internet users by last December to overtake US and become the second largest internet user base in the world.  These online courses would be reportedly backed by patents and each faculty member is likely to be paid Rs 1 lakh per course.


What is it? The share of Indian executives who feel at least one unethical conduct is justified to meet financial targets, according to an Ernst & Young survey.

Why is it important? This is much higher than the numbers recorded in other regions. Indian executives are most likely to bend or flout rules on every single unethical conduct than their counterparts to achieve targets. For instance, 30% of Indian executives would book revenues earlier than they should be, compared to 7% globally, 9% in emerging markets and 4% in developed markets.

Tell me more: According to a KPMG-CII 2014 report, corruption was cited as the major obstacle in doing business in India.


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