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How does India commute to work?  

With the current debate raging over Delhi metro fare hike and its feasibility, How India Lives takes a look at how Indians living in 8 mega-cities commute to work.

We analysed Census 2011 dataset for Indians who are neither employed in agriculture nor in household industries living in 8 of India’s biggest cities – Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi-NCR, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Lucknow and Mumbai.

A large proportion of them, ~36%, either live at their place of work, or have little to no distance to commute, while only ~20% commute more than 10 kilometres every day.

In India, traditional cities were developed in a way that required little or no commute as people chose to live close to work as long-distance commuting essentially impacted their earnings. This trend is clearly manifested in the visualization below, where close to three-quarters of all working people live within 10 kilometres of their workplace. Metro is mainly used for longer trips, with average trips close to 16 kilometres.

In the 8 cities, walking is still the most preferred mode of commuting, largely because of small distances to work. In Delhi-NCR, 22% walk to work and only a minuscule 3% take the train. Except Mumbai, where an equal proportion take the train and walk to work (25%), buses cater to the second largest proportion of people commuting to work. Given the length of the average commute even in top Indian cities, buses and other means of public transport cater to a much larger share of the population while receiving only a fraction of the total investments.

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In The Making: The Largest Ever Tech Takeover

 

Broadcom has offered to acquire smartphone chipmaker Qualcomm. The average surface temperature is above that of pre-industrial era’s now. Telangana government has decided to supply electricity to the farm sector for the whole day for 4-5 days.

 

$105 billion

What is it? The value of the offer in cash and stock by Broadcom to acquire smartphone chipmaker Qualcomm.

Why is it important? If it goes through, it would be the largest-ever takeover in the technology sector, and Broadcom would become the third-largest chipmaker after Intel and Samsung. However, Qualcomm, which is in the midst of a $38.5 billion takeover of NXP Semiconductor, is likely to reject the bid on the argument that it undervalues the company. Further, this deal would face tough anti-trust scrutiny.

Tell me more: Including debt, the total transaction value would be $130 billion. Qualcomm is currently fighting a legal battle with Apple and facing an anti-trust investigation in Europe.

 

1.1° Celsius

What is it? The amount which the average surface temperature was above the pre-industrial era from January to September 2017, according to the United Nations’ World Meteorological Organization.

Why is it important? This has set 2017 to be on course to be among the three hottest years on record, which means many high-impact events such as floods, catastrophic hurricanes, heatwaves and droughts. The warning signs for governments to act couldn’t be more compelling as long-term indicators of climate change worsen, including a rise in sea levels, and increasing carbon dioxide concentrations and ocean acidification.

Tell me more: As many as 200 countries began discussions in Germany on Monday to strengthen a global climate accord even as the United States plans to quit.

 

714

What is it? The number of Indians whose names figure in the ‘Paradise Papers’, a global investigation that reveals financial dealings in tax havens of some of the world’s most powerful people and companies.

Why is it important? The income tax department and the capital market regulator said on Monday they would investigate if any of these people were involved in illegal transactions. The Central Board of Direct Taxes has asked its investigation arm to re-check tax returns filed by individuals and companies named in the Paradise Papers. And the Securities and Exchange Board of India (Sebi) will seek information from stock exchanges on listed companies’ offshore entities, which will be matched with statutory disclosures.

Tell me more: Of the 180 countries featured in Paradise Papers, India ranks 19th in terms of number of names.

 

24 hours

What is it? The number of hours a day the Telangana government is aiming to provide power supply to the farm sector for “five to six days” this week, beginning Monday.

Why is it important? This dry run of sorts is a precursor to its goal of 24×7 power being available to all 31 districts from March-April 2018. Usually, state governments have focused on subsidising power to the farm sector, whereas Telangana, on the face of it, is strengthening delivery.

Tell me more: In the April to September 2017 period, Telangana registered a 25% increase in power generated on a year-on-year basis, which was next only to the much-smaller states of Sikkim and Meghalaya.

 

$9.75 million

What is it? The interest payment on a dollar-denominated debt instrument that Reliance Communications missed on Monday.

Why is it important? This is the first debt-related default in a foreign currency by the Anil Ambani-owned company, whose telecom business lies in shambles, and which is now dependent on asset sales and lender restructuring to salvage an exit.

Tell me more: Elsewhere, it was a red-letter day for a part of Ambani’s financial services business: the company that manages his group’s mutual fund business listed yesterday and closed at a 13% premium to its issue price.

 

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News in Numbers, Nov 17, 2016: Silent killer…

199 million

What is it? The estimated number of Indians who suffer from high blood pressure, according to a study published in the medical journal Lancet.

Why is it important? This is 17.6% of the total number of people suffering from high blood pressure globally (1.13 billion in 2015), which has doubled from 594 million in 1975. Raised blood pressure or hypertension is the leading global risk factor for kidney disease and cardiovascular disease (leads to strokes and heart attacks and causes an estimated 7.5 million deaths globally). The highest worldwide blood pressure levels have shifted from high-income countries to the poorer ones (mainly in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa) in the last four decades.

Tell me more: The analysis is based on 1,479 studies that measured blood pressure in 19.1 million individuals aged 18 years and above. Over 2 out of every 10 people with hypertension are in South or East Asia.

 

36

What is it? The number of hours within which search engines run by firms including Google, Yahoo and Microsoft have to bring down information or advertisements related to pre-natal sex determination once they are brought to their attention, according to an order by the Supreme Court.

Why is it important? The apex court directed the government to set up a nodal agency to monitor and act on public information received on ads promoting sex determination techniques or kits on the Internet. Pre-natal sex determination is illegal in India though this direction could raise questions such as the role of search engines and if it is possible to screen and remove all information related to a particular topic. However, this is an interim arrangement and would continue until the top court takes a final decision on the issue.

Tell me more: As per the Census 2011 data, India’s population ratio was 943 females for every 1,000 males, up from 933 females per 1,000 males in 2001. However, the decline in child sex ratio (number of girls per 1,000 boys) to 918 in 2011 from 927 in 2001 is a cause for concern. This is the lowest since 1961.

 

Rs 7,016 crore

What is it? The amount of loans written off by the State Bank of India owed to it by 63 wilful defaulters.

Why is it important? This includes the amount owed by the now defunct Kingfisher Airlines, whose founder Vijay Mallya slipped away to London in March even as lenders and investigating authorities are chasing him for non-repayment of his companies’ dues and alleged financial irregularities. Some of the opposition parties including the Congress, the Aam Aadmi Party and CPI (Marxist) used this point to attack the government, which has been facing flak from them over its demonetisation move. SBI and the government clarified that these loans had only been written off and not waived off, and that efforts are on for their recovery.

Tell me more: The opposition has been attacking the government for the withdrawal of the old currency notes in Rs 500 and Rs 1,000 denominations terming it ‘anti-poor’ and alleged that it has inconvenienced the common man.

 

8-10%

What is it? The expected growth of India’s IT services industry in 2016-17, according to industry body Nasscom.

Why is it important? This is lower than the 10-12% (in constant currency terms) growth rate it had projected in February. This is the second time that Nasscom has predicted a single-digit growth for the industry in the last 10 years after it reported its lowest growth of 5% in 2009-10 due to the 2008 global financial crisis. The growth rates have been revised downwards following Donald Trump’s win in the US elections (he was quite vocal about his anti-immigration stance and putting restrictions on foreign companies that took away US jobs) and UK’s exit from the European Union.

Tell me more: Indian IT firms have been struggling to grow in the last few quarters with some of their results falling below the market expectations and a couple of them downgrading their own guidance. Indian IT exports are expected to be in the range of $116-118 billion, down from the earlier projection of $119-121 billion.

 

1.7

What is it? The total compensation in basis points (as a percentage of company net sales) paid to top executives (managing directors and chief executive officers) at the most indebted firms among 313 BSE-500 companies. A basis point is one-hundredth of a percentage point.

Why is it important? This is much lower than the 5.06 basis points paid to the top executives of the overall sample of 313 firms in the same year. Also, the growth in compensation to the people at the helm of the most indebted companies has been slower than that recorded for the total sample in the last four years. Interestingly, the salaries of the promoters leading the most indebted firms grew at a faster rate than those headed by non-promoter professionals while the growth of the overall top executive compensation at the most indebted firms was higher than the overall employee compensation in these firms.

Tell me more: The analysis, which excluded banks and other financial firms, divided the 313 companies into four quartiles based on their level of indebtedness. The total compensation includes salary, sitting fee, commission and any other payment, excluding earnings from exercise of stock options.

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What’s killing Indians? Depends on where you live…

This piece originally appeared on Livemint.com

 

 

Over 22,000 Indians die every day. In the 60s, communicable diseases were the main cause, accounting for about half the deaths. Since the 90s, it’s non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, respiratory diseases and diabetes. But all-India data doesn’t give the complete picture, as India is a diverse country. Economic and social conditions, and public health infrastructure, differ from state to state, region to region.

Besides, incidence of disease also varies depending on age group and gender. Granular data on the cause of deaths helps design better policies and solutions, and monitor public health.

India has been collecting data on the causes of deaths for over four decades now, following the passage of the Registration of Births and Deaths (RBD) Act in 1969. The Office of the Registrar General recently released a report with data for the year 2013, looking at 928,000 medically-certified deaths (about a fifth of medical deaths). The above data interactive captures the causes of death: by gender and age group, and for different regions and states. By default, the chart represents India numbers. To choose a specific region or state, use the dropdown. For gender-specific results, click on the buttons.

As one might expect, the causes of death differ based on age group. For example, while infections account for 12% of deaths across age groups, it accounts for about 25% of deaths in the 1-4 years age group. As people become older, chances of being claimed by circulatory and cardiovascular diseases go up. The risk of death by external causes—such as injuries or poisoning—is the highest between 15 to 34 years; and men are more likely to victims (8%) than women (6.5%). Cancer, on the other hand, claims more women (5.7%) than men (4.7%).

Even at the state level, there are many such nuances and comparative surprises. For example, Chhattisgarh is most prone to cardiovascular diseases (over 50% of its deaths were caused by diseases of the circulatory system), Uttarakhand the least (13.3%). In Kerala, at 15.2%, cancer as a cause of death is a full 10 percentage points above the national average. Similarly, deaths due to external causes are the highest among all states in Karnataka, followed by Nagaland.

It’s not clear why some states are more prone to certain categories of diseases. The report doesn’t go into those details. However, it could serve as a starting point for further research and appropriate intervention.

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